View of a MARBLE industry


Par 100 posts (V.I.P)
this was my 100 marks project on marble (stone) industry and have made best efforts to put best input in it...

plz have a glance at it....

Executive Summary

The project is based on view of a marble industry which is to day neglected, In fact of having a heritage of earning revenue from it. Indian Stones conform to the highest international standard and has been used in several well known buildings all over the world like Taj Mahal.
Presently India ranks third as stone exporter. India is largest producer of dimensional stones in world accounting for about 27% of the word's stone production and also a leading exporter of stones which ranks 3rd (Third} in terms of tonnage. By having strength for India in marble it is not shown much interest. The marble is not just a white stone it has too many varieties and innumerable qualities found in India. Scientifically Marble is a crystalline metamorphic rock composed predominantly of calcite and dolomite. Marble reserves in India are estimated at 1200 million tons with Rajasthan accounting for 91% of the total Indian reserves.
In that the best quality of marble is Makrana marble. The Makrana marble has made a appreciable dent in marble industry because of its block ability, whiteness, good polishing character and luster. It is mainly found in Rajasthan. Rajasthan has the largest reserves of good quality marble in India and accounts for 85% of Indian marble production Rajasthan main resource potential includes the major portion by marble. Splendid varieties of marbles are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh etc. There are international standards and government policies which are taking initiative to develop the marble industry.

Chapter I
Introduction to Stone Industries

Ever since human life came into existence, natural stones are being used. In the early ages man lived in caves which was nothing but a house of stone built by weathering. With the advancement of civilisation, man gained skill in quarrying, dressing, and shaping natural stone to meet his requirements and to exhibit their level of living. Every country is proud of their ancient stone monuments, as they preserved their culture, history and rich heritage of their country i.e. Great wall of China, Tajmahal, leaning Tower of Pisa. And many more were all created out of stones and are a symbol of the countries’ historical artistic heritage.
India has very extensive and rich deposits of a wide variety of dimensional stone like Granite Marble, Sandstone, Slate and Quartzite etc. we are still at the infant stage of stone industry these are used for various applications in domestic and industrial utility. Away from Traditional use, today natural stone products provide modern components for interior and exterior decorations, items suiting current design trends and stone craft and handicrafts articles.
Indian Stones conform to the highest international standard and has been used in several well known buildings all over the world. Indian stones reflect the development of rural art of the country and it provides employment opportunities, industrial development application of modern technology and achiever high export targets for earning more foreign exchange. The dimensional stones have, a fairly good market not only in India but there is a considerable demand abroad also and in results a large number of small mines and modern processing plants have come-up in India.

Dimensional stones are a major economic commodity in India. The stone sector in India provides employment to over a million people and it has grown at a remarkable pace over the past decade; taking India to the forefront of the world stone scenario.
The Indian stone industry has achieved global recognition overcoming many constraints. The Stone industry in India has now graduated to the use of modern technology, with widespread use of Excavators, Front End Loaders, Jet Burners, Diamond Wire Saws, Chain Saw cutters, Hydraulic Drillers, Line Drillers, Fixed Derricks, Tiling Plants, Gangsaws, and CNC Machines etc. The Consumable and tools are now being mostly manufactured indigenously.
The world stone production is over 60 million tonnes per year and growing at an annual rate of about 5%.user and India is one of the leading producers, exporter of stones after Italy and China. Stone utilisation in India can only be gauged by the fact that domestic consumption of dimensional stone in India exceeds Rs. 5,000 crore per annum. Italy, China and India together contribute more than half the world’s stone production. Presently India ranks third as stone exporter. India is largest producer of dimensional stones in world accounting for about 27% of the word's stone production and also a leading exporter of stones which ranks 3rd (Third} in terms of tonnage.
Indian natural stones have traditionally been used as an excellent building material. The Taj Mahal at Agra stands testimony to the age defying beauty of Indian marble. Since time immemorial, Indian architecture has relied mainly on stones. Innumerable Temples, Forts and palaces of Ancient Indian Civilization have been carved out of locally available stones. Some of the ancient rocks cut wonders are Khajuraho Temple, Elephanta Caves, Konark Temple, etc. Besides, all major archeological excavations have revealed exquisitely carved statuettes and carvings in Stone. Old Buddhist Architecture like the Sanchi Stupa etc. has also been carved out of stone. In India, this tradition of Stone Architecture has continued to the present era; with most of the important modern buildings in India like the Presidential House, Parliament House and Supreme Court being made from high quality sandstone from Rajasthan. The Lotus Temple at Delhi stands testimony to the relevance of Marble in modern Indian architecture. India still has a long way to go in justifying its potential, it is essential that those who engaged in Stone Industry and trade should make concerted efforts to exploit this gift of nature abounding in our country and improve its export potential for the benefit of the nation.

Chapter II
Introduction to Marbles
With the advent of modern mining and processing machines a variety of rocks can be excavated as blocks, sawed and polished. Commercially, it is any rock that can be cut in blocks sawed and takes good polish. Scientifically Marble is a crystalline metamorphic rock composed predominantly of calcite and dolomite. On the basis of mineralogical composition marble can be broadly classified into calcitic marble, dolomitic marble, siliceous marble, limestone, onyx marble, travertine, verde-antique, calcareous breccia. The main varieties are Green, Makrana Albeta White, Makrana Kumari White, Makrana Dungri White, Jhiri Onyx, Phalodi Pink, Ambaji White, Indo-Italian, Bhabarmal Pink, Bhainslana Black, Forest Green, Forest Brown, Agaria White, and Morwar White etc.
Marble industry of Rajasthan is an important industry generating Rs.555178 thousand approximately Marble reserves in India are estimated at 1200 million tons with Rajasthan accounting for 91% of the total Indian reserves. Marble occurs mainly in the state of Rajasthan spread over the districts of Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Banswara, Dungarpur, Jaipur, Sirohi, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Bundi, Alwar and Pali. Good varieties of marble are also available in the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Being a minor mineral its systematic exploration and scientific studies have not been made. Geological Survey of India has mapped the entire state (rather entire country) on 1:50,000 or 1:63,360 scale. All the marble deposits and the related rocks that are being used as marble dimension stone are distinctly shown in these geological maps. Recently Geological Survey of India has published district resource maps of all the 32 districts of the state on 1:250,000 scale, which is readily available to public. All the known and hitherto less known or unknown deposits have been aptly described in these maps.
Types of Marbles:
The main varieties of marbles are described below with the region they are found. Splendid varieties of marble are spread all over Rajasthan, mainly in the districts of Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Banswara, Dungarpur, Jaipur, Sirohi, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Bundi, Alwar and Pali. Prominent nerve centres for processing and quarrying of marble in Rajasthan are:
Makrana - Makrana White was used in Taj Mahal. Makrana is now a developed marble centre with hundreds of marble quarries, modern slab/ tile processing and stone craft units. Important varieties are Super White, Albeta, Adanga, Kumari, Doongri, Pink etc.
Makrana is situated at eastern margin of the Thar Desert and has an ancient marble mining history. The Makrana marble has made a perceptible dent in marble industry because of its block ability, whiteness, good polishing character and luster. It is fine grained and exhibits stable, well distributed colours, pleasing and attractive designs and patterns. The translucent varieties of Makrana marble are preferred over other marbles for monumental and sculpture work. Marble is exposed on surface in the central part, whereas overburden varies upto 15 meter in the northern and the southern part of the area. Makrana marble deposits belong to Ajmer Formation of Kumbhalgarh Group of the Delhi Super group. Five prominent marble bands occur in the area west of Makrana. From east to west these are known as (1) Devi-Gunawati range (2) Dungri range (3) Pink range, (4) Makrana Kumhari range, and (5) Borawar Kumhari range with band I and II
At present mines extend from Matabhar in the north to Bilu-Mored in the south (approximately 13 km) along the strike and from Gunawati in the east to Borawar in the west (about 1.6 km) across the strike. Matabhar, Kalanada, Kolhadungri and Bilu-Mored are new mining areas.

Rajsamand - Deposits of a variety of white and greyish white marble like (Morwar, Agaria, Dholikhan, Arna, Jhanjhar, and Dharmeta etc) exceed over 387 million tons with 2,000 mining leases. Rajsamand has fast developing quarries using diamond wire-saws, chainsaws and handling equipment and has about 200 modern gang-saw & 20 tiling plants spread over a stretch of 40 sq. kms from Nathdwara to Kelwa and Amet
Udaipur- Deposits exceed over 100 million tons. Major variety is Rajasthan green (and multiple varations like Crocodile, Olive, Sea Green, Imperial Green, Emerald Green etc.) - an export bonanza quarried from Rikhabdeo-Kesariaji, 60 kms from Udaipur City. Udaipur also produces Pink marble with white and black veins. The city has fast developing modern quarries, about 150 modern gangsaw & 20 marble tiling plants.
Banswara- A variety of white to off-white soft dolomitic marble - fine to medium grained. Banswara has fast developing modern quarries using diamond wire saws, chainsaws and latest handling system
Jaipur – with deposits of over 50 million tons, Jaipur produces a variety of white & greyish white marble with important varieties being Pista, Onyx, Indo-Italian, Black. Jaipur has modern quarries using diamond wire saws and chainsaws, several modern gangsaw & tiling plants and is a throbbing trade outlet for exports and marble handicrafts. Marble in Uttar Pradesh occurs mainly in two districts, namely Pithoragarh and Mirzapur. Marble in Andhra mainly occurs in Khammam, Cuddappah, Guntur and Nellore Districts.
Gujarat: It produces one of the finest varieties of fine-grained white marble in its Ambaji Region. Ambaji also produces black marble popularly known as Abu Black. Gujarat also produces lesser-known varieties of granite (Black, Pink, Chocolate and Brown colour) in Sabarkantha District. Black Granite is also found in the districts of Amreli, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Surat, Bharuch and Banaskantha. Ahmedabad in Gujarat is one of the most important nodal centres for manufacture of tools and machinery for the stone sector.

Rajasthan Resource Potential:
Rajasthan has the largest reserves of good quality marble in India and accounts for 85% of Indian marble production. It also has the distinction of having about 90% of the total Indian reserves. Almost all the varieties of marble specified in BIS (op. cit) are found in Rajasthan. Other varieties found in Rajasthan and not covered under the BIS classification are the yellow marble of Jaisalmer; Pishta marble (Amphibolite variety) of Andhi – Jhiri belt Jaipur, Alwar and Dausa districts; brown, green and golden ultramafics of Dunkar, Churu district; Chocolate brown and English teak wood marble of Jodhpur district; Parrot green marble of Jhilo Sikar district; chocolate brown or wood finish marble of Mandaldeh, Chittaurgarh district; Purple marble of Tripura Sundari in Banswara district and blue marble of Desuri, Pali.

Rajasthan marble is having huge demand potential within country as well as in the foreign markets. In the state about 2000 units of marble-based industries are under operation. The production and demand both have rising trends. In the financial year 2003-2004 there were about 3,153 leases, about 854 quarry licenses, and more than 1500 gang saw units working in the state. The industry as a whole employs more than 5, 00,000 persons in the state directly, out of which about 3 Lakh persons are deployed in mining and the rest in processing and trading activities. Many more persons are getting employment and other benefits from the industry indirectly. It has helped in the development of several ancillary industries as well. More than 5,000 trading concerns of marble are operational.

Contribution of the marble industry in the economic development:
The contribution of the marble industry could be explained with the help of following points:
Generation of Employment:
This is one of the biggest contributions of the industry from the socio-economic point of view. Today the marble industry of Rajasthan employs more than 5 Lakh persons (as stated above) in the various sectors of the industry like mining and processing and many more are getting their employment indirectly from this industry like transporters, mechanics / workshop owners, masons (for laying and fixing of stones), artisans etc. In Rajasthan the overall industrial development is not much and the major portion of the population depends on the agriculture which in turn is very poor due to water scarcity and high dependency on monsoon. In such conditions the contribution of marble industry though small, but is important and vital for employment generation, that too of in-situ nature. The in-situ employment is the employment for which the workers need not rush to city and can work from their own places.
Revenue Generation:
The revenue generation from the industry is in the form of royalty on mineral despatched, excise, sales tax and surcharge on finished products and taxation on machines and various incomes. The industry is generating huge revenue for the state in the form of mineral royalty. As per the available data marble mining in the state generated revenue of Rs.5, 65,178 thousand (approx.) in the year 2003-2004. Processing and sales of marble also generates huge revenues for the state and the Central Government in the form of Sales Tax (& surcharge thereof) and Excise respectively (excise duty up to annual sale of Rs 1 Crore have been exempted from marble w.e.f. 28.4.2002).
Sales tax is applicable on marble slabs at the rate of 12% of the total sales value with 15 % surcharge added over the tax value. Besides this, excise is levied for the sales over 1 Crore at the applicable rates. These two generated huge revenues for the Government.
Apart from this Rajasthan is also a big market for the imported marble. Government levies huge levies on the import of marble. At present Indian Government gives licenses for the import of marble at the rate of US $450 per metric Tonnes of marble slabs and US $ 300 per metric tonnes of marble blocks. These import duties are basically levied to safe guard the interest of Indian producers and to counter the dumping policies of countries like China. These import duties also contribute to the revenue generation for the Government.
Earning of Foreign Exchange:
India produces roughly 10% of total marble production of the world and Rajasthan counts for more then 95% of total production of marble in the country. The exports of Marble from country counted to 1,05,864 Tonnes in the year 2004 and the value of these exports were Rs.1742.55 Million (approx.). Total value of exports of marble and products thereof from India in the year 2003-04 counted upto Rs. 2135 Million approximately. Major portions of these exports were from Rajasthan, this way, the industry plays an important role in the development of the state as well as the country by generating big amounts of foreign exchange. The main consumption of Rajasthan marble is within the country; even then it has occupied 10th position in the list of commodities exported from Rajasthan. The export has been facilitated with the exhaustion of Italian marble deposits (which has already started) and strict controls of safety and environmental laws in the European countries.

Rural Development:
“Shehar Thahar Nahi Sakte Aur Gaon Ujarte Jayenge.” This saying come true in the modern time, when villagers are running towards cities for the employment. This is further facilitated by the fact that educated and more competent persons get chance in the cities and migrate from villages, leaving behind only mediocre. The pace of rural progress is very slow, owing to availability of only less funds for rural development. Further due to lack of infrastructure facilities such as road, rail -head, port or dry port and air terminal facilities, electricity, houses, school, availability of market and unwillingness of experts to stay in rural areas, it is difficult to start industries in the rural sector. Due to these reasons, the industries are not able to get developed in rural sector, despite of some incentives and subsidies by the government.
The marble mining is absolutely resource controlled and the resources are only in rural sectors. Even if there is a marble deposit present in the urban sector, it cannot be mined due to demographic reasons. Hence, the development of marble mining is synonymous to development of rural sector. It is evident from the fact that most of the villages situated near the mining fields of marble have progressed and have become the hub of other business activities. Moreover marble mining in Rajasthan boasts of providing employment to more than 3 Lakh persons, and all of them mainly belong to the rural sector. However, in Rajasthan the processing and marketing of the marble is mainly centralised in the vicinity of big cities, whereas in other countries the marble processing is done at the mine site only. Several mine owners are thinking on this pattern to install there processing plants at the mine site to save expenditures incurred in the transportation of the block. This will further increase employment availability in the rural sector.

Development of Allied Industries:
Apart from marble slab processing, there are several other industries related to the marble industry of the state, which has developed in a good shape. These industries are:
 Dolomite Powder Industry:
Most of the marble found in Rajasthan is of dolomitic nature and in the process of mining and processing, about 70% waste is generated. This waste of marble Industry is actually dolomite, which is powdered to different mesh sizes and used in various Industries, such as cement, rubber, plastics, paint, and detergent industries. It is also used as filler in many other industries. Though the specifications for dolomite of different industries vary, but Rajasthan has dolomite for almost every kind of requirement. The development of marble industries in Rajasthan is the reason behind the development of dolomite industries in the state. Dolomite from Rajasthan is sent to various states like Uttar-Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal-Pradesh, Delhi and NCR, Punjab and to some extent to south India too. Today Rajasthan is one of the largest producers of dolomite lumps in the country.
 Marble article industry:
Along with the marble slab industry, this industry has also developed in the state. It started with the making of small articles of marble by the local artisans in Makarana. The marble lumps were easily available from the processing units and the mines of the Makarana area. Earlier, the marble articles were made by small menial hand tools. Now with the advent of motorised diamond tool and big lathe machines, the industry has emerged in a large shape. In some of the main markets of marble like Makrana, Kishangarh, Jaipur, Udaipur, Abu Road (Pindwara), there are large numbers of artisans earning their livelihood from this industry. Now these artisans are not only dependent on the mine waste, they also procure blocks as per the requirement of the article to be made. Big lathes and sophisticated machineries like CNC (Computerised Numerical Control System) are also used for the article making. The CNC machine can carve or emboss the stone as per any design fed into computer. The industry is having huge domestic and international market. For article making marble of homogenous composition and calcic base is preferred, as it is comparatively soft. For this reason marble of Makrana and Ambaji is in great demand. In addition Bhainslana grey, Kesariya Ji green, Jhiri white and Bhabarmal pink is also used. The main articles produced are Balustrades, umbrellas, stairs Railings, Chaklas, Fountains, Flower Vases, Ashtrays and variety of statues like Idols of Gods and Famous Person. The industry, which started with the ancillary level, is now a big industry and is catering the needs of thousands of families in the state. Now artisans are making articles in sandstone, granite and some semi-precious stones too.
 Machine manufacturing:
The marble industry requires variety of machines for the mining and processing. Earlier, most of these machines were imported from Italy and other countries, but now these machines are made locally and some of the manufacturers are exporting their products too. There are several units in the state, which manufacture machines like Gang Saw, Gantry, Derrick and other types of Cranes, Wire Saws, Chain Saw, Polishing Machines, Jacks and Calibrators etc. This is a big industry solely depending on the marble industry of the state. Apart from this there are many workshops for making local made compressors, generating sets, earthmoving equipments etc and repairing the same of big multinational and Indian companies. There are several units in the state involved in the manufacturing of steel wires, drilling machines and other consumables of machines and equipments involved in marble mining. These all have developed with the development of the marble industry in the state and depend on this industry for their survival.
 Cutting tools industry:
This is yet another industry, which has developed along with the development of marble industry in the state. Mining and sawing of marble requires diamond segments to be fitted in wire saw, chain saw, gang saw, wheel cutters etc. There is huge demand of these in the state and their demand is expected to increase in future. Now almost all the marble mines in the state are using wire saw, and these being of consumable nature the industry is going to emerge in a huge form. Earlier these segments were imported in the country but now these are made indigenously. Most of these industries are located at main diamond processing centres like Mumbai and Surat, but now several of these of these have developed in the state too in the form of ancillary industry level. Some multinationals have also ventured in the state in this sector.
 Polishing abrasives industry:
Processing industry of marble requires several types of polishing abrasives. There is a huge consumption of these and their consumption is directly proportional to the consumption of marble. This industry is gaining importance every day and many researches are being conducted for improving the quality and reducing the price of these abrasives. Good quality abrasives are imported from Japan and Korea but now many Indian manufacturers are producing world class products at much cheaper rates.

Quality Improvement Techniques:
This is basically the Research & Development oriented aspect of the industry. With increasing urge of persons for having something exclusive, several new products are being launched in the Dimension stones market. Many of these varieties require prior treatment before affixing them. With the advent of stone improvement techniques, the variety of chemicals, dyes, fibre sheets etc. have been developed. Since these techniques are comparatively new, most of such materials are imported as yet. Some of the Indian manufacturers are also manufacturing such products. This industry holds good growth potentials, and with the help of further researches these may be developed to cater domestic needs as well as can be exported.
Transport Industry:
Although the transport industry is not dependent on the marble industry for its survival, but marble industry provides huge business to this industry in the state. The transport industry in the state depends prima facie on the agriculture and the associated activities. The mineral transportation in which marble transportation is one of the major components helps the industry to sustain in the meek seasons of agriculture thus saving it from seasonal unemployment. The data show that a single mine owned by R. K. Marbles at Morwad is producing almost 200 truckload of marble everyday.
Development of Other Dimension Stones Industry:
Apart from marble, Rajasthan has been bestowed with wide variety of Dimension stones like Granite, Slate and Sandstone and their development is subsequent to the development of marble industry in the state. Because of marble industry these stones also got recognised and found easy market. Availability of expertise, entrepreneurs, technology, and most important mundies for the marble has played the key role in the development of these Dimension stones industries in the state. Traders and exporters of natural stones visit established marble mundies at Makarana, Kishangarh, Jaipur, Alwar, Abu Road etc. and also buy other dimension stones from the same area, if available. Besides, the buyer- seller meet is as essential component of Industrial development, which is facilitated by marble mundies in the state.

Artificial Marble Tile Industry: This industry is in its primitive stages as yet and is not a big success till now, but some manufacturers are trying to make marble tiles out of marble powder from the waste. These processes involve mixing of marble slurry with some epoxies and other chemicals, and subject it to heat and pressure. Popularity of marble is the basic reason behind the development of this industry.

Rajasthan has some special conditions favoring the development of marble industry in the state and making it more viable in the state. Some of these advantages bestowed to Rajasthan are as follows:
Huge Deposits:
Rajasthan has huge deposits of various qualities of marble. The size of deposits clubbed with their quality makes it one of the most suitable places for the viable development of the industry. Expected deposits of marble in the state are over 1100 million Tonnes, which comprise over 90% of the total marble reserves of the country. These deposits are expected to further increase with the search and discovery of newer deposits.
Trained Workforce:
Marble industry is an old industry in the state. Over the years of development of the industry in the state there is ample availability of trained labour and artists related to the marble industry. Mining processing and value addition of marble requires some specialised skills, which have been carried from generations in the state. Initially, the trained work force was called from Iran at the time of construction of Taj Mahal, after which the expertise of marble mining and processing has developed in the state indigenously. This availability of the trained work force has helped in the development of the industry in the state. Now if some deposits of marble are found in other states of the country, then trained workers from Rajasthan are summoned for the exploitation of the mineral. This speciality has helped in the development of the industry in the state.
This is one of the important but indirect locational advantages to the industry in the state. Since the industry was first developed in Rajasthan, the entrepreneurs of Rajasthan, basically, handle the marble industry of the nation. Even if there are some processing units, trading houses or mining fields for marble in other states, these are generally handled by the entrepreneurs of Rajasthan only. Like most of the mining done in the Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. it is owned by the businesspersons from Rajasthan. This has helped for the sustainable development and assures bright future of the industry in the state. As mining being an uncertain venture not every body is willing to invest in it. But the entrepreneurs of Rajasthan have a bent to invest in and earn from marble mining.
Developed Mundies:
Over the years of development of the industry in the state, state has now emerged as the big market for trading of Dimension stones in the country. Rajasthan is the biggest market for marble in country. Being the largest producer of marble in the country, several mundies in the state have developed. These mundies deal in all types of Dimension stones produced in the country and other countries too. Initially, Makrana was the only marble mundy in the state, and then with the advent of modern machines, increase of production, discovery of newer areas, several new mundies have also developed. These mundies play the key role in the proper marketing of marble (and other Dimension stones too). Due to these mundies national and international buyers are attracted towards Rajasthan for the purchase of marble and other Dimension stones. Because of these developed mundies of Rajasthan India now holds the proud position of highest producer of raw stone material and large processing capacity of granite, sandstone, slate and marble.

Disadvantages to the Industry in Rajasthan:
Some of the disadvantages faced by the marble Industry is facing in the state are enumerated below:
The state is in a corner of the country with poor development of rail network. The marble being weight wise heavy commodity (average weight 5.5 kg per square foot), its transportation to different part of the country is quite costly. Some times, the cost of truck transportation is more than the cost of the stone. As the marble deposits are not found in other states this cost is acceptable, but once the marble deposits are available in other parts also, this factor will become quite deleterious. Recent development of the industry in the Madhya Pradesh is going to cost the marble industry of the state dearly. Similarly, the nearest port for export is Kandla, which is about 1,000km. The truck transportation for this distance is quite costly affair and is an impediment in the export of marble.
Government Policies:
The Rajasthan Government policies for the marble Industry were so far not conducive. When, the Industry was booming in early nineties, a new marble policy was promulgated in 1994, which stopped further growth of the Industry. The mistake was realised after three years and the 1994 marble policy was slightly modified in 1997. But this modification could not undo the negative trend set in for searching new deposits. As a result with lot of pestering by the Industrialists, one more marble policy has announced w.e.f. 1.3.2002. The present policy is seemingly good and Industrial friendly.
Apart from this, mining in the state of Rajasthan does not hold the status of an industry, this keeps the marble mining devoid of all the facilities and the advantages which are available to an industry. This is one of the serious hurdles in the proper development of the industry. Though different Governments have promised from time to time that mining shall also be treated at par with other industries with the same concessions available as are being given to the industrial sector, but nothing concrete has been done so far.
Lease Process:
The mining lease process in Rajasthan is very difficult, time consuming and uncertain. This procedure according to some persons of the industry is the most complicated and lengthy in Rajasthan in the country. There are five main agencies involved in the lease process without any mutual co-ordination. These agencies are
(i) Department of Mining and Geology
(ii) Forest Department,
(iii) Revenue Department,
(iv) Environmental Department and
(v) Local Bodies like Panchayat Samiti etc.
In each department there are various sections, some times located at different places and in absence of strict norms and discipline, a lot of personal factor is involved at every stage. Many a times it takes few years to get the lease with lot of uncertainty at every stage.
Due to these bottlenecks, many entrepreneurs are not interested in the trade. This is one of the reasons the industry had not been able to develop properly in the state.
Quality Control:
The Rajasthan marble in the International market is considered to be of poor quality as regards its processing. As the domestic consumers lack quality awareness, so incentives on the part of the processing unit owners for the quality improvement are minimal. As a result to that, finished product does not conform to international standards of sizing and polishing. But now many persons are deploying sophisticated machines to produce quality products, which may be acceptable in the international market. Moreover, the Installation techniques (fixing of marble in building) have not been modernized. This makes the installation of marble quite an expensive and time taking job, also the quality of installation is not upto the international standards.
Mining and Processing at Different Places:
As has been described before, in Rajasthan mining and processing of marble is done at different places. The industry in the state is developed in such a way that the mining and the processing units are at distant place. Lack of infrastructure facilities in the rural areas, make it make it impossible to establish the processing plants at the mine site. This adds up the cost of marble in the form of increased transportation expenditure.
Technical Experts Not Consulted:
Mine owners still work mainly on the advice of the mistries and thekedars. These persons assess about the deposit on basis of their limited vision and experience, and their education level is very low. This increases the failure rate in the mining ventures. The failure of many persons in the mining of marble has de-repudiated the mining of marble very much. Success ratio may be increased if advises of experts and technical persons are taken and proper prospecting procedures are practiced before opening up any mines.
Small Size of Mines:
The small size of quarries is a big hurdle in the proper and scientific development of mines in the state. Most of the old areas of marble in the state are having small quarry sizes and have gone quite deep too. Though the recent policies of the state Government permits marble leases of four hectares minimum, but most of the older mines especially of Makrana region are very small. This has made mining in these areas quite difficult, costly and dangerous.
Other disadvantages:
The other disadvantageous factors are, (i) Illogical taxes; (ii) Non-availability of Industrial status to the marble Industry; (iii) Lack of infra-structure facilities; (iv) Hostile attitude of villagers and unsociable elements in the mining area; etc.

Reasons behind the increasing popularity of marble:
These are the following reasons behind increasing popularity more and more day by day. The following are the reasons as follows:
Low cost:
Now marble has emerged as a very cheap option for the flooring purposes. Earlier it used to be a leisurely thing which could be afforded by only few, Now it holds the twin advantage of catering the needs of both cost conscious as well as elite customers seeking exclusivity. Moreover the cost of the competing Dimension stone i.e. granite is much higher than marble and good ceramic tiles are also costlier and less durable than marble, this point also goes in favour of the marble industry.
Beautiful looks:
“A thing of beauty is joy for ever”, the saying stands true for marble too. Whether its flooring or the elevation marble looks good. Availability in huge variety of colours, shades and designs increase the beauty of marble all the more. Marble does not suffer the problem of monotony, which is one of the major drawbacks with the applications of granite and the ceramic tiles.
Generally used Dimension stones for the purpose of flooring and elevations are marble, granite, sandstone and slate. Of these only marble and granite can be applied on the flooring as the other two are porous. Both these natural stones are long lasting. This is one of the big advantages of these over other Dimension stones and ceramic tiles. In fact the longevity of granite is much more than marble but the historical monuments made of marble are good evidence that the longevity of marble is also well enough more than one expects.

Chapter III
Demand and supply of Marble.

As we saw the advantages and disadvantages of industry on Rajasthan but what about the demand and supply so lets see the demand and supply of marble.

Demand of Marble:
It is a well known fact that marble now has become a thing of necessity, rather than a luxury. Marble has now become the cheapest and the best option for the flooring of the building constructions besides the other uses. Demand of marble has grown steadily in the past few decades. Though the supply of marble in market is much more than the demand.

Supply of Marble:
Rajasthan has been bestowed with huge reserves of marble. So far there is no problem as such of shortage of supply of marble in the state. Estimated reserves of the state are 1100 million tons, which are more than 91% of the total marble reserves of the country. The present hard times faced by the industry in the state are in fact a result of imbalance of demand and supply of marble in the market. Lured by the high profit margins of the trade, several entrepreneurs have entered in the industry. With the advent of modern technology in the past few decades, the production of marble has increased like any thing. The cost of production has come down and the speed and quality of production have improved a lot. Moreover, the reduction in wastage has also resulted in increased production. All this resulted in supply of huge surplus to the demand in the market.

Factors affecting the demand and supply of marble:
The studies indicate that the demand and supply of marble both have an increasing trend. But at present the demand of marble is much below the supply.
Increased Production:
Due to advent of sophisticated mining machinery and development of new mining fields marble production has increased manifolds. The biggest role in this has been played by the invention of wire saw & chain saw for marble mining and diamond gang saw for the processing. To bring down the cost per ton of production, most of the big mine owners followed the principle of increasing the production. As a result markets were flooded with marble and there were few takers. This is one of the most important reasons behind the present imbalance between the demand and supply of marble in the market. Moreover some new deposits of marble have been discovered. Earlier in Rajasthan there were only two marble producing regions, i.e. Makarana and Ambaji, but now 20 districts of the state are producing marble. As supply of marble kept on increasing the prices were forced to come down.
Decrease in growth rate of construction activities:
There has been a global reduction in the growth rate of construction activities since last few years. Marble industry has its sole dependence on the construction industry. The production of marble has increased in the past few years and the construction activities too have increased. The core of the problem is that rate of growth of marble production is having an increasing trend whereas the growth rate of construction activities world over is having a declining trend. So the supply of marble is much more than what is required.

Overall Global Recession Faced by the World Economy:
The whole world economy is facing the recessionary trend since past few years. This has affected most of the industries, but the commodities of necessity. As marble is not an essential commodity, marble and related industries have faced a decrease in demand due to decreased purchasing power of consumers. This phenomena is not limited to India but is evident the world over. Experts are of the opinion that the world economy is right now going through the troughs of the trade cycles.
International Disturbances:
Major disturbances in the world and especially in the Indian subcontinent have attributed to decrease in exports of marble from India. Steps taken by the Government of India to prove its military strength have not been taken very well by the developed nations of the west. This has imparted temporary effect on the overall exports from the country. The September 11, 2001 attacks on World Trade Centre, in New-York City have also impelled the authorities’ world over, to rethink about the constructions of high rise buildings. Since then, there has been down fall in building construction activities in western countries.
Other Marble Producing Nations:
This is yet another reason for decreased exports from India. Other countries like China, Italy, Greece, Spain etc. are not only producing good quality of marble, but they have shelved their prices too, in the past few years.
There is much hype in the trade circles that with the ingress of ‘Global Agreement on Trade and Tariff’ (GATT) and “World Trade Organisation’ (WTO) the entry of the imported marble in the country will adversely affect the marble industry of the state. But in fact the systems are going to help the marble industry of the state rather than harming it. There are many reasons, which ensure that the imported marble can not compete with the Indian varieties on the price front. So largest sector of Indian buyers that is the middle class of the country will remain a safe market for the Indian producer. In America largest numbers of anti dumping charges after China are against Indian companies. So the western countries are more afraid of prices of our products than we are of theirs. These systems will increase the market of our market. Every one do agrees that marble varieties of Rajasthan are world class and some of them are unique to Rajasthan only. Dimension stones being of natural occurrence are available at very few places in the world. At many countries even if marble deposits are available these are not being mined either due to lack of infrastructure facilities, lack of capital in the underdeveloped nations or due to environmental over awareness, giving no cognisance to such industries in the developed nations. So WTO and GATT are going to help the Dimension stones industry of India very much if not to the other industries. More over, as a sequel to that Indian Dimension stones processing industry will get more work as than they can process marble from some countries and resale it to other countries. China is doing this practice since past many years and has been highly benefited from it. Along with easier import of foreign goods in the Indian market, these schemes also ensure similarly easy export of Indian goods to foreign markets. So the tempo created in the industry about the repercussions of these schemes is a short-sighted interpretation of these.
Liking of the customers:
It is a fact that the liking of the customers for stone cladding has increased dramatically in the past three decades. Main reasons behind this are heavy production of Dimension stones making availability of these much easier and affordable. Mechanisation has been instrumental in the development of this industry in the world over. Now the time and the cost involved in the final production of marble has been considerably reduced. As a result marble has entered in the middle class sector of the country. Now marble is the cheapest and the most suitable option for flooring of the residential and official constructions. Though in the states farther from Rajasthan it may not be the cheapest option on account of transportation charges, but still it enjoys supremacy over other options for flooring.

Basic need of the mankind is Roti, Kapada Aur Makan (food, cloth and shelter). All the acts and thoughts of a man are some way or the other dependent on these three primary needs. In the past few years there has been tremendous development in the construction industry. Marble too is a small part of this construction industry. The process has been facilitated with the easy availability of loans at lower interest rates. Main components of this industry no doubt are Cement, Steel and the Natural Stone. These three industries closely follow the trends in the building construction industry. In the sections below, the production figures of these three industries are given to give an idea of the direction of the building and the construction industry. Here it is assumed that the marble industry will keep on following the relative path of cutting marbles.

Techniques of Cutting marbles:
There are huge marble deposits scattered through out India to be exploited for dimensional stone. Estimated reserves in India are about 1200 Million Tones and out of this about 90% are spread in different districts of Rajasthan state. For economical exploitation of marble deposits systematic & scientific mining is the critical need of the time and so is the selection of proper equipment and technology.
Out of various steps in extraction of marble, drilling is a most important step. Different types of drill machines like LD4, Slim drill, Quarry Master, Heavy duty Mega drill and Wagon drill are playing important role for quarry front cutting. Slim drill is mainly used for drilling co-planner holes. Mega drill, a heavy duty machine, is used for drilling 175 mm diameter. and higher size holes for blind cuts etc.
Apart from drilling machines following combination of equipment is necessary for achieving quarry front cuts and are used depending upon the requirement of a particular pit:
Slim Drill – Diamond Wire Saw.
Quarry Master - Diamond Wire Saw.
Belt Saw - Diamond Wire Saw
Blind Cut Machine - Diamond Wire Saw

Types of methods for cutting marbles:
These are the different methods of cutting marbles as follows:
Quarry Master- Diamond Wire Saw Combination:
It is also known as “Performatic Drilling Method”. In this method Quarry Master is used for making a back vertical or bottom horizontal cut. The cut is generally 5-6 meter wide and 7.5-8 meter in depth, which is a limiting factor. The quarry master drills holes of 115 mm diameter at a close spacing of 2.5 cm upto the desired depth. The parting left between holes is broken with the help of a specially fabricated button bit with side wings and giving percussive motion only with the same drill. In this way a clear slot of desired width and depth is achieved. From the other end two horizontal or vertical (as the case may be) holes of 115mm diameter. Upto the slot are drilled with the help of slim drill. These holes shall facilitate the diamond wire to pass through them for further cutting operation. Thereafter with the help of diamond wire saw, side cuts as well as bottom/ back cuts are achieved completing the Quarry front cut operation.
It is suitable where quartz is present in marble.
Less skilled worker can operate & maintain the machine.
Handling is easy.
Time consuming.
Dust & Noise Nuisance.
Costly marble is wasted in slot.
Not suitable in loose and crack strata.
Jamming of hammer and bit.
Quarry front cut possible only in two steps.
Due to the above mentioned disadvantages, the use of Quarry master in mechanized marble quarries is on decline. The belt saw is a machine specially conceived for extraction of marble blocks from a marble quarry.
The machine is made up of a frame, which supports motor block and an arm over which a diamond belt runs. The frame is set on rails, which it runs along the rails. The machine is electrically powered except for the movement of the arm carrying head, which is hydraulically powered. The motor block consists of three electric motors, one for the rotation movement of the diamond belt, second for the turning movement of the diamond belt– carrying arm and third for the traverse movement of the frame along the rails. The same frame also holds another two motors for accessory functions and the control box for the machine. The arm can rotate vertically 360 and can be positioned both vertically and horizontally as shown in fig. 4. The belt runs along the lower edge and forms a loop around the arm. A small wheel is mounted on the top of the arm to help the translatory motion of the belt; inside the arm are the channels, which distribute pressurized water to lubricate and remove fine particle from the belt. After achieving a horizontal or vertical (as the case may be) 38mm cut of 2.97 meter deep and desired width, two vertical or horizontal holes of 115mm diameter are drilled upto the cut by slim drill machine. Thereafter with the help of diamond wire saw side cuts as well as bottom/ back cuts are achieved completing the quarry front operation.
The belt is composed of a series of small metal cables covered in plastic and distributed with 3 cm long rectangular steel bars whose external surface is clad in diamonds. The diamonds are sintered with help of a cobalt and bronze binder. The belt has approximately 13 diamond bars per linear meter.
High Productivity.
No theoretical limit to the length of cutting.
Absence of dust.
Vibrations relatively scarce.
Quality of blocks is better.
Optimal dimension for Gang saw cutting.
Higher yield of slabs.
Availability of water is must.
Limited depth of cut < 3M
High cost of equipment
High cutting cost
Handling is possible only is means of cranes/ excavators
A regular geometric quarry is required (plain surfaces)

This is a simple mechanism composed of two 37mm x 75mm MS channels 10-12 meter long. For convenience of handling and requirement of varying depth these channels are made in pieces of 5 meter, 3.5 meter, and 1.6 meter length with fish plates welded at their upper end for achieving required length by joining them with nut bolts. The lowest channel has a base plate and a 150 mm diameter. Pulley with double row ball bearing encased in a polyurethane seal filled with grease. The upper portion has a pulley of 350 mm diameter.
These channels are lowered down into already drilled 175 mm diameter. holes of required depth along with diamond wire passing over the lower and upper pulleys and finally connected to a diamond wire saw. These two vertical holes accommodating channels are connected with 115 mm diameter. Horizontal holes at the bottom for cleaning the slurry generated during cutting. When the diamond wire saw moves away with Diamond wire in the initial stage rotating and running, linearly cut the marble rock from top to bottom. In a latest development a pulley with stand is placed in the centre of the cutting width over which this diamond wire passes to minimize the trust while cutting the corner edges of the cut. The height of blind cut channel is kept more than the height of the cut so as to compensate the parabolic cutting surface at the bottom and achieve a level surface. With this technology, we can save much time and cost in making a quarry front (galli) cut which in turn reflects in higher productivity.
High productivity values
No limitation of depth of the cut
Initial investment is very low
Low cost of Cutting.

Chapter: IV
Mining of Marbles
Earlier the mining was carried out manually but now a day, mechanization has been started. Various extraction techniques used for dimensional stone extraction are Feather and wedge method, Drilling and blasting technique, Swelling material extraction technique, Wire/Chain/Belt saw cutting technique, Water jet cutting technique, Flame jet cutting technique and Slot drilling technique Mainly opencast mining in India carries out for the extraction of dimensional stones.
In recent years wire/chain sawing has become predominant method of marble block separation but in other dimensional stones these techniques have limited application. Presence of hard material and deeper & thin deposits of marble also limits the use of wire/chain saw extraction technique. The use of controlled blasting method is the only option in such a situation. Blasting is carried out in quarries for removal of overburden and separation as well as for splitting of blocks. It continuous to be an important method of block production and splitting in case of granite, sandstone extraction.
In dimensional stone extraction very small amount of energy is used to separate rock or splitting the separated blocks especially in situations where non-blasting methods cannot be used. However, energy released during blasting when transmitted to the rock, besides doing the useful work, also causes damage in the surrounding rock in the form of unwanted micro to macro level cracks. Blasting damage to remaining rock and block is very critical. Recovery of marketable product at the quarry site depends upon micro cracks and fractures developed due to blasting in extracted block and remaining rock. The damages due to explosive energy even at micro level in dimensional stones affect the recovery of finished product at processing plant. Damage is required to be minimized even in conventional rock excavation in several situations such as pit wall blasting, tunnel and underground chambers excavations, etc.
For the last many years considerable efforts have been made to study the effect of blasting on the rock damage and also to minimize damage resulting from blasting. Quantification of damages to remaining rock due to explosive energy has been carried out in conventional blasting. As a part of this study the objective has also been to develop macro cracks in dimensional stone blasting with economical techniques while protecting block/remaining rock from development of micro cracks.

The removal of overburden and thereafter block mining of dimensional stone is carried out in the study areas. The capping of overburden is removed by drilling holes of 34mm and 115mm diameter with the help of jackhammer and large diameter drill machine respectively.
Rock Breakage and Damages:
The primary fracturing in the form of radial cracks are initiated near the blast whole wall during generation of strain waves and driven up to the free faces by both damage & pressure developed from gases. It has also proposed that strain waves are mainly responsible for radial crack development and thereafter, completion of breakage process occurring by entering the gases into these cracks.
Further, the importance of stress waves in the fragmentation process was felt utilised large block models in an experimental program and reported that by reducing burden, it is possible to help the fragmentation process because the reflected waves are made more dominant.
Blasting effect results in rock mass breaking and micro cracking in a finite region, which causes the decrease of P- wave velocity in the region. The P-wave velocity for undamaged rock mass after blasting is the same as that before blasting. Ultrasonic P-wave velocity measurements can provide indication of micro crack zone in rock around blast hole.
The present study has been carried out to get a better understanding of the damage resulting from various methods of blast loading, crack initiation & protective devices and also to get better possibilities to minimize the undesired cracks.

Various Techniques for Damage Quantification:
Rock mass damage due to blasting is directly related to the level of stress experienced by the rock mass and its pre-blasting condition. The damage caused to the surrounding rock mass is the combined effect of stress wave and gas pressure. The extent and type of damage is a function of blast design as well as the rock mass characteristics. Although the rock fails under tensile stress, the crack forms gradually by crack extension and propagation. Stress concentration plays an important role in the control of the orientation of crack initiation and propagation.
The explosion load exerted in the distant region sharply attenuates and does not break rock masses, at the weak planes such as joints and bedding planes. These weak planes may produce the internal damage of rock masses and reduces their load-bearing capacity and stability.
Blasting effect results in rock mass breaking and micro cracking in a finite region, which causes the decrease of P- wave velocity in the region. The P-wave velocity for undamaged rock mass after blasting is the same as that before blasting. Ultrasonic P-wave velocity measurements can provide indication of micro crack zone in rock around blast hole.
The present study has been carried out to get a better understanding of the damage resulting from various methods of blast loading, crack initiation & protective devices and also to get better possibilities to minimize the undesired cracks.

Experimental work has been carried out in marble quarries for quantification of damages due to blasting in the remaining rock. The sites selected for experimental work are Bhabarmal and Jaspur near Udaipur in Rajasthan State producing pink and white marble respectively. Geological aspects regarding formation of rocks/various deposits of dimensional stones and inherent properties to form the crack in particular direction has also been studied.
Quarry experiments with various types of explosives including detonating fuse in circular hole in conventional manners were carried out with variation of explosive energy. Air, sand and water filling, using various types of hole liners (Splited steel pipe, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipe & paper tube), hole notching, and notching along with paper pipe, experiments were also carried out to protect the damages in the extracted block/remaining rock.
Core samples were collected before blasting at a distance of 0.25 to 0.50 m from blast whole line. After blasting core samples adjoining the hole and also nearby were collected.
P-wave velocity measurements and mineralogical studies were carried out on these core samples as well as on blocks. Further, the results have been compared with those obtained before blast.

P-wave velocity:
The testing of rock quality is determined by the measurement of ultrasonic wave velocity of relatively low frequency pulses passing through the rock. In general higher the velocity, higher the quality of rock or less damage in the rock in the form of micro level to macro level fracturing. Velocity of a pulse of longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations in an elastic solid can be given by the following equation:
E (1- )
V =  -----------------------
ρ (1+) (1-2 )

Where, V = P-wave velocity (km/s)
E = modulus of elasticity
ρ = density g/
 = Poisson ratio
The ultrasonic wave velocity equipment has been used in the laboratory for determination of P-wave velocity. In this apparatus, pulses are generated and the time of their transmissions through the rock is accurately measured.
In marble formation, variation in rocks is observed frequently due to foliation planes. Thus, it becomes difficult to differentiate between naturally occurring weak plane and that developed due to blasting. Hence, the measured P-wave velocity and observations at microscopic level are not uniform in all the test blasts. In all the tests of Bhabarmal and Jaspur marbles, there is a decrease P-wave velocity in the cores taken from close surroundings of holes in which blasting has been carried out.
Mining related activities and their impact on Environment:
Extractive industries like mining are viewed as ecology pariahs that spoil nature and feed over consumption of finite resource. Indeed, the result of past practice, often insensitive to the environment contributes to mining poor public image in much of the developing countries. With the global awareness about the environmental degradation, there is increasing pressure on the mining industry to restore the ravage done by the open cast mining. The so called "green society will play a major role in the next decade. Recycling, conservation & preservation will be a way of life.
Open cast mining, marble processing, solid waste generation and its disposal, trading and transport of marble blocks, slabs and irregular marble pieces (khandas), and art and craft work are important activities in Makrana mining area. Quarrying is by conventional rope and bucket method and the quarries run along the strike and dip of marble bands. Large scale land transformations, unscientific mining, unsegregated waste dumps, incompatible land uses and improper waste disposal have caused land degradation, ponding and flooding of water, visual impact, loss of aesthetics, pollution, health and safety hazards.
Extractive industries like mining are viewed as ecology pariahs that spoil nature and feed over consumption of finite resource. Indeed, the result of past practice, often insensitive to the environment contributes to mining poor public image in much of the developing countries. With the global awareness about the environmental degradation, there is increasing pressure on the mining industry to restore the ravage done by the open cast mining. The so called "green society will play a major role in the next decade. Recycling, conservation & preservation will be a way of life.
The mineral recovery has never been more than 25%. The mineral to waste (O.B. + Production Waste) ratio has varied between 1:10 to 1:8. The huge quantity of waste has generated which either has been back filled in exhausted area or dumped and stock piled elsewhere. Man made mountain could be seen all around the mining belt. This symbolizes the reckless mining practice degrading aesthetic values of the area and creating many environmental problems. The land and precious soil has been depleted very fast creating severe scarcity of drinking water. There has been general increase in ambient temperature. Solid waste has been the biggest polluter.
With the global awareness of environmental protection and financial constraints due to increasing cost of waste handling it became very essential:
* To upgrade the quarrying technology so as to improve mineral recovery and
Reduce -generation of waste.
* To reclaim the degraded land and rehabilitate the waste dumps by dense forestation and regenerate a green environment.

Chapter V
Quality management
Quality management:
Standardization of dimensional stones has received increased attention throughout the world. Workman like results is slowly converted to qualitatively controlled results. This eventually led from compliance with technical product specification to checking and certifying the production process - altogether giant steps as a stone industry known for its traditional approach to manufacturing. Whereas the standardization of manufactured goods etc can be controlled to a certain extent, stone materials are nature's creation and standards have to be adapted to the materials available. This is the more difficult because of the globalization of the world trade in stones with supplies of large variability range. In addition standards are subject to planning regulations varying from country to country, with an almost infinite variety of local governments and authorities.
The effort to introduce quality management practices are designed to protect consumers while taking into consideration the suppliers' possibilities. Without this approach, the trade would become chaotic, taking into account the variation of practices adopted throughout the world. The experiences of natural stone manufacturers and consumers are analyzed and included, to improve the system. This enables continuity and perfection of application of the stone at its final destination and is important when deciding which controls or tests to perform, taking into consideration environmental and safety factors.
The Indian Dimensional Stones Industry has been found lacking in spirit as well as information in introducing qualitatively planned control over activities right from mining , surveying to slab manufacturing even in delivery and further installation of the product.

In fact the end to end qualitative approach is missing from the planning and initiation. Uncontrolled and unplanned mining and processing activities of dimensional stone are going on for last many decades and have resulted in huge quantity of waste generated during last few years and remained at quarry site. In early stage of quarry development, uncontrolled blasting has created damages in the dimensional stone quarries.

A number of quarrying techniques have been developed and implemented for extraction of dimensional stones. The most of the techniques used are controlled blasting, feather and wedge technique, wire/chain sawing, slot drilling, drill and blast techniques swelling material, diamond wire saw/chain saw/belt saw cutting, It is required that the dimensional stone processing right from blasting of overburden to block sizing to slab and tile production to layout and installation should adopt quality planning for exercising better control over the processed product.
The figure given down shows a thematic flow of the processes from surveying to packing and delivery of the product to the end user. This diagram shows from the start from where the marble is removed by cutting from mountains by making hole or by different methods than by using techniques of cutting the marble blocks. The blocks are converted into slabs and transported to the godowns after that as per the measurement; it is distinguished the quality of marble. The cutting as per the appropriate size is done. With the help of manpower and machine the marble gets polished and the wastage is kept aside.The retailers are followed by getting marble in small quantities. The consumer is the end user in the flow

Thematic Flow of Marble

The testing in natural stone have basically the following objectives :
A. - Description of the mechanical quality of natural stone.
Without any doubt the tests most often used in the world of stone are those that measure the mechanical quality of the stone. Among the different tests the common ones are :
1. Apparent specific weight:
This test determines the density of the material.
2. Testing of Loads:
These tests determine the aptitude of a stone for its use in places subject to heavy movement over the floors from cleaning machines to vehicles and there are basically three:
• Resistance to compression
• Resistance of a testing sample of a material to be broken using a compression load.
• Resistance to flexion.
• Resistance of a testing sample of a material to be broken by means of flexion force.
• Resistance to blows.
The height from which a steel ball has to be fallen so that a testing sample placed on the floor is broken. On this point it must be mentioned that a deficient installation of a material several times leads to granite and marble tiles with sufficient properties to resist a determined type of movement ending up breaking.
3. Abrasion Tests:
The abrasion tests measure the deterioration through friction that is suffered on the surface of the material subject to movement. There are different forms of measuring the abrasion though in general a machine for wear and tear is used evaluating at the end of the test the quantity of material lost or the height lost by the surface.

4. Reaction to Humidity
The reaction of a material to humidity is one of the properties in which the tests of the different norms present greatest difference of opinions , and this is owing to the fact that a material absorbs water as a function of the time of absorption and in function of the temperature of the water. The absorption of water of a material is important to determine the easiness of cleaning,. The particles of dirt, usually penetrate into the material through water, less absorption means less penetration of dirt.

It is also an important parameter for identifying the suitability of a material for claddings, a high level of absorption along with a cold climate can cause the water to be absorbed in the surface of the stone freezes and ends up breaking the surface.

5. Reaction to Chemical Agents
The reaction of the materials to chemical products, generally to acids, has the objective of establishing the suitability of the use of the material in situations that are subject to attacks of aggressive products : from kitchens to industrial areas. One can establish that these characteristics form the basis of mechanical behaviour of the stone, for the prescription of stone in usual applications these tests are sufficient.

B. Establishing suitability of a stone for specific use.
There are a series of more specific tests the existence of which is justified by the specific uses of stone
6. Resistance to thermal changes:
The loss of weight with temperature is measured, at the same time observations are made about the reaction to heat and the effect on the shine with these changes.
A low resistance to the heat changes is a necessary condition for the installation of stone in open spaces.
7. Resistance to ice:
The loss of weight as a percentage of material is measured at low temperatures. As in the previous test the low loss of weight is necessary for the use of stone in open spaces .
8. Expansion Module.
This type of test determines the expansion coefficient of the material as a function of the measuring plane and a function of the change of temperature.
Even though nowadays the use of these tests is very limited, however the importance of taking into account this coefficient in the planning of installation is beyond doubt, up to such a point that not using the mentioned result leads many times problems in installation with serious economic damage.
9. Resistance to cladding.
The suitability of installation of a material in a wall cladding should be judged in these types of tests.

10. Electric characterization of product.
The determination of electric resistance of a stone material is done following the standard system of including the material in an electric circuit and then measuring the resistance. This parameter is increasingly important for the use of stone in environments with a propensity to the generation of static charge, computer centers, banks, surgery theatres, highly computerized offices, etc.
11. Sound insulation.
These tests measure the capacity of a stone to insulate sound, the determination of insulation capacity of a material is an expensive test so its use is restricted to places where this parameter is very important, hospitals, sound laboratories, some hotels, etc.
12. Slippage tests.
These tests try to measure the resistance to slipping of a floor, they are done with dry and a wet material. for this several types of stimulators of shoe floors are used. Usually there is a threshold point which is necessary to cross. However, it must be mentioned that the resistance to slipping depends not only on the material but also the surface treatment (polished, honed, bush hammered, sanded, etc.) These types of tests are necessary in many countries for the prescription of a material in public places like ramps and pavements.
It is further concluded that implementation of quality control in natural stones has been a challenging and daunting task. However the increased global interaction and efforts by European norms to establish guidelines and standards for natural dimensional stones shall also become integral part of the industry. The above quality plan along with Legal, environmental and safety practices and initiative will help the industry to be competitive, optimized and ready for challenges of the future.
Clean Environment:
Extractive industries like mining are viewed as ecology pariahs that spoil nature and feed over consumption of finite resource. Indeed, the result of past practice, often insensitive to the environment contributes to mining poor public image in much of the developing countries. With the global awareness about the environmental degradation, there is increasing pressure on the mining industry to restore the ravage done by the open cast mining. The so called "green society will play a major role in the next decade. Recycling, conservation & preservation will be a way of life.
The huge quantity of waste has generated which either has been back filled in exhausted area or dumped and stock piled elsewhere. Man made mountain could be seen all around the mining belt. This symbolizes the reckless mining practice degrading aesthetic values of the area and creating many environmental problems. The land and precious soil has been depleted very fast creating severe scarcity of drinking water. There has been general increase in ambient temperature. Solid waste has been the biggest polluter.
With the global awareness of environmental protection and financial constraints due to increasing cost of waste handling it became very essential:
*to upgrade the quarrying technology so as to improve mineral recovery and reduce -generation of waste,
* to reclaim the degraded land and rehabilitate the waste dumps by dense afforestation and regenerate a green environment

Chapter VI
Government policies and its Standard Dimension
Government policies:
New marble policy (Govt. of Rajasthan 2002) which allows grant of Prospecting License over an area of up to 50 hectares. This will help scientific studies of the deposit and resources before the investment are made. By such studies, the deposits buried below the soil cover are likely to be unearthed.
Huge resources of marble and related calc-silicate rocks of Churu, Jalore, Alwar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts have not been properly assessed. They prove to comprise huge reserves. The modern techniques such as geophysical survey, and core drilling are very important in locating the buried deposits.
The stone improvement techniques can enhance the physical properties of the marble and hence the marble which was hitherto considered to be non-saleable can now be sold at good prices after improving the stones.

Impact of Government policies on the industry:
Recently, Government has introduced many new laws pertaining to the proper and sustainable development of marble industry, and these are well received by the persons related to the industry.Removal of Excise duty: One of the major changes that the Government has introduced is the removal of the excise duty on marble (upto the annual sales of Rs.1 Crore). This is a major step as so far marble was the only mineral product in the country on which excise was imposed. The removal of the excise duty will reduce the landed cost of marble to the end user and this will surely increase the demand of marble in the market.
New marble policy:
The new policy for the marble mining will facilitate the search of new marble areas in the state. The new policy not only allows the grant of mining lease for marble in the state but also permits the prospecting work for the search of new areas of marble deposits. In toto it can be said that the Government had realised the importance of this industry and now seems to be committed towards the development of the industry.

International standard dimension
Standards on the trade, processing and application of dimensional stone are issued by the national bodies having jurisdiction in each country. The best-known international standards are those by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Material). They are recognised and enforced not only in the Northern America, but also in many other countries, especially Asian countries, which do not have their own national rules. Up to a few months ago, in Europe, the main rules concerning natural stone were German (DIN), British (BSI) and French (AFNOR). In addition, there were Italian (UNI), Spanish, Portuguese and Belgian rules. Today, the scenario is completely different, since the first ten European standards are already available on the market. As the new rules are gradually enforced, all ASTM countries shall lend them the status of national legislation and repeal any contrasting national rule. This is, therefore, a dramatic change for the European stone sector, resulting in the suppression of any technical barrier to free trade and to the exchange of stone material. For instance: a Spanish producer who wanted to sell his product to Germany or to the UK may supply such material – after obtaining the European certification – everywhere in the Single Market, without having to take upon himself to have it tested to different rules. Another important innovation, doomed to change the current commercial customs of the stone industry, adds to this situation. It is the enforcement of the CE mark for cladding slabs, modular tiles and flooring and stair slabs.As is already happening for other building materials, no cladding or flooring slab or tile may any longer be put on the market unless it is provided with the specific CE mark. This will occur as soon as the above product rules are published, i.e., as we mentioned, presumably in the second half of 2003. From then on, the companies will have a twenty-one months’ provisional period to comply with the requirements set forth by the new legislation, after which the provisions will become mandatory and binding.
It is understood that all of those companies wishing to place their products within the European Single Market, i.e. both those European who supply the local market and non-EU companies wishing to export their products to the EU market, wi65ll have to comply with such provisions.

What does the CE mark mean?
The CE mark certifies that the product complies with the following requirements laid down by the above Directive on Construction Products: mechanical resistance and stability, safety in case of a fire, hygiene, health, and environment, safety in use, protection against noise, energy economy and heat retention.
Enforcement of the CE mark involve for the business:
The companies will have to submit the product to a whole series of inspections, consisting both of a set of initial tests and controls on production in their plants. Every stone company shall, therefore, set up a production control system within its plant, to ensure that the quality of its finished products keeps up with the levels found during the initial product tests.
In particular, these rules will include a whole set of inspections, both on the geometrical and aesthetic features and on the physical and mechanical properties of the products. The former are already inspected by the companies, and this is nothing new, therefore, for the stone companies. The determination of physical and mechanical properties is, instead, less frequent and the companies shall, therefore, especially at the beginning, set up proper facilities to do so.
Theoretically, such tests could be conducted by the company’s in-house test laboratory. Since, however, only the larger companies could have their in-house laboratories, a different scenario is certainly to be expected: very simple tests, such as the determination of water absorption, will be conducted in the plant by way of a control system to test any change in the basic properties of the material, while more complex tests will be conducted by a laboratory specialising in the testing of stone materials according to the European standards.
Once completed, the most complex and demanding tests shall be valid for ten years (this figure could be changed before the standards are published) and will have to be repeated earlier only if the properties of the material are assumed to have substantially altered. Other tests to be conducted less frequently will also be included.
At the end of the process, the company shall affix the CE mark on the package and/or on the accompanying commercial documents as well as prepare the special labels containing the data required by the legislation.

Future trends in dimensional stones:
In recent year in Europe the natural stones that move freely like marble, granite and all other natural stones, by the new European provisions are required to be certified with a quality standard and must carry the CE quality mark.
The new regulations propose that specific rules are defined that covers testing methods, technical terminology, stone origin and product guidelines. The latter, in particular describes the natural stone' characteristics, composition and durability and it depends upon these factors whether the quality certificate can be given.
The CE mark comes together with a certificate of conformity covering the declaration of conformity by the manufacturer. Such a declaration presumes a series of tests carried out to as certain physical and application characteristics in addition to denomination and the use of standard technology
The product must therefore satisfy important requisites: resistance against heavy knocks, stability, fire safety standards, consumer safety, noise tolerance, hygiene, environmental and human health standards, energy resource saving and thermal insulation. The information described on product labels and documents surrounds supplier identification and responsibility, the guideline, the year it was issued on the market, characteristics and relative value, and identity of the laboratory that carried out the tests.
Competition from the Marble of Other countries and states:
The stone industry is probably the oldest industry around, and the competition has been thickening ever since. We are facing and will continue to face competition from numerous forces, both direct and indirect. Ever since the Indian stone industry’s boom in early 1990’s we have seen so many players trying to grab a share of the pie but only a few have come out successful. Some lost out because of poor management while others succumbed to poor marketing. The fundamental of marketing is, “you can only sell a viable product”. Someone has rightly said, “A good product will sell itself.” However, only good raw materials and quality processing can only bring out good product.
India has a natural advantage when it comes to natural resources, as some of the best-known granites and marbles are found here and do not have a comparable alternative elsewhere. India, however, faces stiff competition from the stone industry of Italy, China and a few more countries and ironically, the competition extends to stones originating from India. While Italy is able to market high quality material and offer extended credit periods, Chinese have done so by aggressively marketing and by offering at cheaper prices. India, on the other hand has the ability to manufacture high quality material at reasonable prices and is still not able to adopt either the Italian style or the Chinese way. Indian manufacturers have to bear in mind that stone-processing technology is tremendously improving and at a rapid rate and unless we adopt these advances and focus on high productivity we will lose out despite the natural advantages.
In order to continue working efficiently, and achieving the required quality standards, it is essential to keep up with the technological advances. Technology is progressively a great means of working efficiently and effectively. With this let us get obsessed with two keywords in this business – productivity and quality. If we manage to achieve these two, the doors to the international markets would always remain open and incredible savings will be achieved, both direct and indirect. This will in turn enable us to pass on a part of the cost savings to our customers. After all, they need to be competitive in their markets too. We have to assertively promote Indian stones in the global market. As an industry, with support from the government, we should make dedicated efforts to promote Indian stones abroad, the way Singapore and Malaysia promote themselves across the world to increase interest and awareness in the minds of the final consumers. Trade shows like these should also be marketed aggressively to increase the enthusiasm in Indian stone across the globe. These efforts will also counteract against threats to our natural advantage from artificial stones like Breton stone, which are quickly gaining popularity.
We have the potential to match and successfully compete against the sprawling stone industries across the world. There is going to be some competition to the Rajasthan marble mining and processing industry with the development of marble industry in the other states. But seeing to the quantum of the reserves of other marble producing states viz. Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka such worries appear irrelevant. Though these states are more centrally located in the country having cheaper approach to the different parts of the country, but each of these marble mining centres are having limited varieties of marble. The processing industries of these places have to look ultimately towards Rajasthan for catering to their needs to keep them in running conditions. Moreover entrepreneurs doing them business in these sates are mainly of Rajasthan origin only. So in fact development of marble industry in the other states will increase the demand of marble blocks from Rajasthan.
Along with technological advances, focus should also be on the workforce. They should constantly be educated on the new processes and any innovations in the production processes. During the initial training process the work force should be made to understand the processes that go into making high quality finished products. Let them also get obsessed with the two magic words of the business productivity and quality.

Impact of International Events on Marble Industry:
Marble industry of Rajasthan depends a lot on the export market. The series of recent events throughout the world have affected the Indian exports of marble. It started with the nuclear tests conducted by the Government of India in 1999.
In response to theses tests many of the western nations imposed sanctions on business relations with India. This effected most of the export oriented Indian industries. This was a major setback for the marble industry of Rajasthan as there was already a problem of surplus production.
The industry was not able to recover from the impact of these sanctions when the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in United States worsened the situations even more. Rate of growth of Indian natural stone exports have decreased severely as a result of these events. At present the international community is quite hesitant to make deals with the concerns of the subcontinent seeing to the disturbances between India and Pakistan and possibility of conflict between the two nations. Besides these disturbances there is one more threat to the Indian stone industry, which is presented by China. In the recent years China has started exporting marble and other natural stones at very cheap prices and is capturing a large portion of the market.
India being the largest producer of marble in the world and fifth largest exporter has its domestic market quite safe but the international market of Indian marble has been severely affected by the Chinese market policies:
I Export marketing details:
In sixties Indian companies exported granite blocks. With the introduction of imported sawing, polishing, tiling and cutting machines export of polished granite slabs and tiles increased while the export of granite blocks decreased. This has definitely increased foreign exchange earnings for the country. Similarly, from North India in 90s green marble blocks were exported, but slowly and slowly Indian exporters have started exporting polished green marble slabs and tiles, thus increasing the value of exports. Inspire of all these, granite and marble blocks are still exported.
India’s contribution to the world exports by tonnage is 9.5%, but when these figures are compared with China (19.5%), a new entrant in the world market, who has emerged to the first position in only 15 years, is not encouraging. Italy occupies second position with 14.7%. India is at third position followed by Spain. Therefore, a critical analysis of Indian exports from marketing point of view is essential.
II Present Market scenario:
The trend of exports of marble granite, natural stones and products thereof from 1987 –88 to 2001 – 2002 is given at Table 1. Classification of items in granite, marble slate and other stones have been mentioned. The exports rose from 1,043.7 million rupees in 1987 - 1988 to 26,146 million rupees in 2001 – 2002 in 14 years. While the increase appears to be significant, it is not up to the mark.
If the situation of dimension stone sector 20 years’ back is compared to today’s, position most of the people know about all the natural stones, its varieties, finishes and sources. While jet has reduced flying time between countries, internet has helped one and all to obtain information on sources, varieties, finishes, prices and payment terms at once. Negotiations have become quick and the products have become very competitive.
The known markets for natural stones had been Italy, China, Germany, Japan, and USA to a great extent. With fair participation and contacts through internet, another category of markets has also developed, like UK, Spain, Australia, France, South Korea, Switzerland, and Singapore. It is only very recently that some companies have identified special markets like Poland, Czech Republic, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa, Portugal, Egypt, Sri Lanka, Thailand etc. The varieties of stones, its finishes and finished products have also been different for different countries.
A close understanding of the market with respect to its requirement, climatic conditions, finishes, sizes is essential to export Indian stones in such countries. There are some Indian stones, which are quite similar to others in the world. Such stones have a stiff competition with respect to CIF prices. The ocean freight from one country to another is significant for low priced stones like slate, limestone, quartzite and sandstone; especially when the finish is natural. For polished granite and marble, the ocean freight is important but not to that extent. There is a significant scope for Indian exporters in venturing into new countries where requirement may not be large but quality products can be sold at a better price and payment terms. Such markets are difficult to locate but can definitely be identified.
III Areas to be examined by Indian Exporters:
Feed-back from local architects and builders would be of great help in ascertaining what type of stones can be used in a particular country. A close look at climatic conditions and conventional uses like interior, exterior, flooring, wall cladding, interior decoration, paneling, etc. is essential. Import duty and other taxes for such items must be examined. Analysis of finish and prices must be made for existing stones. The existing distribution channels must be studied in greater detail. Import profile with specifications of such stones would be of great assistance. Based on this, similar stones can be offered in the market to match the colours, sizes’, finishes etc.
IV. Emerging new Markets:
It would be seen that in the case of marble polished marble slabs & tiles and slate, there had been a short-fall during 2001 – 2002 with respect to the previous financial year. It is significant to note that over-all growth of stone exports in rupee terms in 2000 – 2001 was 20.18% whereas in 2001 – 2002 it is only 4.63%.
The country-wise exports during 2001 – 2002 are which clearly indicates that the best markets in descending order are USA, Republic of China and Italy. For marble Saudi Arabia is also a good and steady market while for other stones, UK and Bangladesh are big markets. It clearly indicates that in order to get big export orders with liberal payment terms, one must participate in international fairs in USA, China and Italy. For stones and stone products, probably, International Tile and Stone Show being held in Las Vegas, USA, Stonechat in Beijing and China Stone in Shanghai would be quite interesting. Marmomacc in Verona and Carraramarmotec in Carrara are important fairs in Italy. Participation in Saudi Stone in Saudi Arabia would also be advantageous for exporting marble slabs and tiles. For UK market, London Stone Show would be quite interesting. Efforts must be made by Indian exporters not to sell marble blocks, but to export polished slabs, tiles and value added items.

V. Modern Marketing Techniques:
Many times one can get inquiries through periodicals and magazines, which must be followed up seriously. Subscribing to such magazines can be effective. Advertising in a magazine, which has a distribution in identified country, can bring in some good contacts to the exporter. The advertisement should be with as little text as possible but must attract every reader. It must be remembered at-least five persons read that one magazine.
Internet has an important role to play and many times through website new buyers are identified. Besides this, there are many buyers who float their enquiries through special websites. Most of the time such enquiries are not complete in themselves and, therefore, such websites must procure full specifications from the buyers and then put on the net. Proper follow up with such buyers some times may lead to good export.
Fair participation is an important tool to get into new markets. Selection of the fair, location of the stall with at least two sides open and good publicity can help an exporter to a great extent. Impressive brochure and visiting card leave a lasting impression on the buyer. It is rather difficult for a company to participate in two or three international fairs. Therefore, based on the strength of Indian exporter, participation in one or two good fairs in a year with attractive display of products and posters must be planned to attract new buyers.
VI. Marketing Strategy for the present Decade:
The conventional methods of marketing have been followed so far. Besides these conventional methods, the following unconventional methods of marketing are becoming popular. Probably the following marketing strategy would be used extensively in the present decade by some of the exporters:
1. Warehouse Abroad as a Joint Venture:
A good Indian exporter with adequate quarrying and processing facilities can possibly think of opening a warehouse abroad as a joint venture with a foreign company. Instead of stones lying in India, these would remain abroad for display and sale purpose. If the set-up abroad is good and has a good location, then it would become popular. There could also be retail sale of stones and stone products. At times many small importers would also approach this warehouse for buying stones in full/part container and selling through their own ware house. This would mean effecting sales in three different ways:-
 Warehouse imports stones for its own consumption and retails it.
 Warehouse imports containers for special projects.
 Warehouse imports full containers for small importers where payments are directly made by the small importers, but through the warehouse.
Modalities of operation can be worked out. While Indian exporters’ strength lies in its quarrying and processing facilities, quality products and despatch upto port, the foreign company takes care of its own warehouse, administration and marketing set up etc.
2. Marketing Though Small Retailers:
Indian exporters have so far been supplying stones to big foreign importers, who sell stones, may be in pellets or even as full containers to retailers. Europe is such an example where one big warehouse in Germany can cater to the requirement of many retailers in and around Germany i.e. France, Switzerland, UK, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Poland, Czech Republic etc. If the Indian exporter contacts retailers even in one country and takes their orders, combines these and exports one full container say for three retailers, better market prospects would emerge for Indian exporters with respect to price, payment terms etc. Foreign retailer would also have a better price, besides all facilities, which he has been getting from the big importer. This would require lot of traveling and selection of one or two countries to start with. Constant follow up with such retailers is required and periodic visits must be made.
3. Barter Arrangement:
It has not picked up so far, but it is felt that very soon barter arrangement would become popular. One can import Rosa Alacante and Crema Marfil from Spain as slabs and in turn supply green marble or a variety of sandstones. Import of marbles has been popular so far. Crema Marfil, Roja Allcante, Bianco C, Thasos, Statuario, Alabaster, and Galala are popular names in India. Earlier these were imported as blocks, but because of the present import policy, these are being imported as polished slabs. The exporters of these items have big quarrying and processing facilities in different countries.
They would be willing to have a barter arrangement where Indian companies import these stones from them and they import selected varieties of Indian granites, marbles and other stones on the same payment terms. A proper selection of such companies in India and abroad with good financial standing would help in exports.
4. Investment by Foreign Companies in India:
There have been some cases where foreign wholesalers and investors have taken exclusive mines in India. Material is processed and exported exclusively for them for being sold in that country or in selected countries.
There have been many instances of foreign companies investing in granite mines in South India so as to obtain right quality of material for their own consumption. There could be such cases now for green marble, a variety of slates, sandstones and even for limestones. Investment by foreign companies would provide necessary support to the Indian companies and would help them in supplying large quantities to the same buyer.

Chapter VII
Packaging Management and Techniques

A New Instant PackagingSystem
It is a known fact that the basic package functions are
• Containment
• Communication
• Convenience
• Protection
Consumer Industry mainly appreciates the first three functions but the need of the hour for Stone industry is PROTECTION AT OPTIMUM COST. Stone Industry in India takes pride in making quality and innovative products. However, this effort goes waste when ineffective packaging methods are used. Goods damaged in transit tarnish the reputation of the manufacturer as well as the country as a whole. Hence packaging has been recognized as a significant factor in the nations export promotion effort.
Apart from cost effective product Protection, Stone industry is looking for Versatile and Flexible packing material to pack their wide assortment of products of different size and shape, Environmental Sensible packaging to meet stringent requirements of importing countries. In a nutshell, Indian Stone industry requires the right packaging system that packs prestige.
Innovative new packaging methods using Instant Foam have been introduced into the Indian Market through USA based leading global manufacturers of wide range of protective and specialty packaging systems to serve the needs of Indian Industry especially exporters. They have introduced the latest in Packaging engineering to Indian market and Stone industries.
Many leading Stone product exporters in India have switched to the simple and effective new packaging technology. The System is an all electric packaging system suited for medium to large packaging operations, which can encapsulate the product with high performance foam and there by arresting product movement inside the carton and at the same time offering cushioning during transit.
These are three simple steps to pack a product:
Step-1 Place a product in box.
Step-2 Spray liquid on it, which converts into foam.
Step-3 Close the box and a product is packed.
It can be done with the help of:
a) Plastic sheet.
b) Thermocol.
c) Bubble Sheet.
d) Wooden Boxes.
e) Shredded paper etc.
The new packaging process is fast, simple and just in time packing solution. It is proven cost effective product packing solution, environmental sensible packaging meets 3Rs, and is a single source of packing material to pack wide variety of products.

Polishing marble:
Polishing of marble is an important task to sell to the consumer. Polished marble has its own glaze and shines that mainly attracts the consumer. The more perferct polished marble the major cost it involved.
The polishing of marble includes:
Rubbing Bed
Jenny Lind Polisher
Disc Polisher.

1. Rubbing Bed:
This machine is a circular metal table. There is also a rim to carry away the liquid slurry produced during the rubbing operation. The machine is now rarely used due to technology innovation. In this the marble block is placed on the table, and sharp sand or steel action of the abrasive between the table top and the stone produces the smooth surface. large blocks are kept in position by a wood beam fixed across and slightly above the table. Small blocks are controlled by hand.
2. Jenny Lind Polisher:
It is also known as the rise and fall model. It is used for smoothening and polishing flat surfaces of marble. The machine is fixed at pillar or wall, consists of a metal frame carrying an arm and a vertical rotating polishing spindle to which is connected a rubbing head and a polishing disc.the diameter of hand is 10 inch and that of disc is 12 inch. The discs of larger machines are up to30 inch diameter. The rubbing head revolves and makes the surface smooth.
A smooth surface is imparted to the marble by carborundum blocks, which are of four grades, that is coarse, medium, fine and finishing. These are fixed in turn in this order to the rubbing head, the abrasive action of these blocks as they rotate, together with the water which is delivered through the hollow polishing spindle, gives the smooth surface. This is followed by the final polishing process, the fine carborundum block being replaced by the polishing disc, which is a metal plate.
A marble slab after being processed is smoothened and polished in the following manner:
The slab is set on the stone bench, the coarse carborundum block is fitted to the rubbing head and the spindle is adjusted to the required height. The motor is started, the water is turned on and the operator, holding the guiding handle gradually directs the rotating block over the whole surface. The pressure of the carborundum block is increased or diminished by the operator lowering or raising the handle. When the surface has been rubbed down to an even surface, the coarse carborundum block is replaced by the medium block and the process is repeated. After the fine and finishing blocks have been applied in a similar manner, the surface should be very smooth. Any grit on the marble must now be removed, the polishing disc is fixed, putty powder is sprinkled over the slab, and the surface is traversed as described until a high polish is obtained. A splash board is used to protect the operator from the slurry, it is fitted to the bench between the slab and the operator and with its upper edge.
3. Disc Polisher:
This has long vertical rotary spindle attached at its upper end by a universal joint to the motor above. The spindle is telescope to allow for the adjustment of the disc at the diameter of marble to be polished. Moulded surface of marble cannot be smoothed and polished by these machines and are dealt with by hand.
Instead of hand grinding and polishing Moulded marble surface, these operations may be performed by a pendulum or slider. After the casting has been correctly placed on the moulded marble, it is caused to swing to and fro as the pendulum swings and water is applied in turn during the slurry in the process.

By reviewing all aspects and facts regarding stone industry, it needs its own planning, stone industry have no integrated projects, one is a slab or tile plant or semi-finished or monument plant or may be purely a stone quarrying for blocks, if the required meticulous planning is achieved in the new millennium, there is no doubt that Indian Stone Industry will recreate a new Indian Stone Civilization and secure the reorganization for India as the foremost stone center of the World.
In order to combat the adverse environmental hazards that may arise from explosive application in quarries, meticulous planning and prudent designs of extraction shall be employed. Monitoring and assessment of the extraction process using appropriate scientific equipments/instruments shall pave way for optimum and safe exploitation in the vicinity of critical structures.
Improper mining and non-enforcement of safety rules and mining laws is causing loss of life and public property in the area. Designated sites for marble slurry (Pandu) disposal are not properly sited and are insufficient. Even Forestations and compensatory forestry has not been undertaken in the mining area. Self imposed regulation more than Government imposed rules have to be observed. Though the Government receives revenue of thirteen crores rupees per annum from the mining and related activities, there is no improvement in basic civic amenities like roads, good schools, park, potable drinking water supply, hospitals, electricity etc. Since, mining is location specific activity, major environmental control measures are required to be taken for mitigation of hazards, restoration of natural ecosystem and sustainable development of the mining area.
At international level many of the famous mines of Europe have already exhausted. China presents a tough competition, Moreover, construction activities in China have almost reached to their saturation, but the urbanisation of India has in fact just started, which provides a huge scope of domestic consumption.
In marble extraction process, quarry front (galli) cutting is an important operation, described the different options available for this work in a mechanized marble mine which has also resulted in much higher productivity.
The prices of marble are expected to further go down with the increased competition and as the cost of production are expected to come further down in future. The total production of marble is expected to increase at the rate of 12% per annum or more and the exports of marble and products thereof from the country are expected to increase at around 20% per annum. Domestic consumption of marble in the country is prognosticated to increase at the rate of around 10% per annum.
As in modern age the seminars trade fairs and exhibition have became important tool to bridge the technological gaps and to develop global business tie-ups, an effective coordinated promotional complain and also become a showcase to provide latest technological development in stone sector of India.
There is a strong need to use unconventional methods of marketing. Indian Exporters must appoint distributors abroad, who can sell stones and stone products in that country. Full knowledge of markets is necessary with respect to quality, finish, price and payment terms. By following the rules and implanting proper planning, the industry will surely grow in the times to come but it is expected to grow in a centralised manner.

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