project on POM part 1


New member
Introduction To Project Study

Everyone is talking of the challenges and opportunities of the new millennium that is upon us but if one were to look at the events of the last decade of the twentieth century one could almost believe that the new millennium for India began in 1991.Since those momentous days when the government of the day took the most radical steps in over four decades to loosen the economy and create conditions for competition and global influences to wash over shoes, we have not looked backed. Small-scale industry (SSI) offers the new world that the Indian economy, or at least the organized urban part of it, is carving out of the opportunities that economic reforms are throwing up.

1.1 Aims Of The Project:

1. To understand the importance of small-scale industries.
2. To understand the production functions carried in small-scale industries.
3. Getting the practical information by visiting at production unit.
1.2 Method Of Data Collection:

1. Interview Of Proprietor.

2. Interview Of The General Manager.

3. Interview Of The Customer

4. Ready Literature On The Topic

5. Websites.

1.3 Limitations Of The Project Study:

We faced some difficulties while doing this project, which becomes the limitations in the completion of this project.
We were having limitation of the time because the topic is very vast to study.
The second limitation was limited members in the group because for this project needed at least 10 members in our group but we managed it with 7 group members.


2.1 Organization:

The organization i.e. the small-scale industry visited by us to do the project is, “ALTRA POWER ELECTRICALS” which manufactures Induction motor 1 phase and 3 phase. Break motor, Clutch motor, Lift-duty motor, Crane-duty motor L.T.C.T., Gear motor 1 phase and 3 phase, Blower motor, Air curtain motor, D.C. motor and O. E. M., which is located at Adarsha Industrial Estate, Pokharan Road No.1, Upvan, Thane (west).
These motors are used in big machines to rotate the moving parts. They are supplied to the large size industry as spare parts in big machines. It is operated by five people. The power manager, and there workers.

2.2 Product :

The product manufactured in the small scale industry which we visited, is induction motor’s of 1 phase and 3 phase, break motor, Clutch motor, Lift-duty motor, Crane-duty motor L.T.C.T., Gear motor 1 phase and 3 phase, Blower motor, Air curtain motor, D.C. motor and O. E. M. which is fully designed and manufactured in the workshop itself, so these motors are fully manufactured in the workshop on the order only. Production is carried out by job production method, as per the requirement and specification of customers.

2.3 Service :

A part from manufacturing of various types of motor, they also provide after sales service. They also repair other motors, upgrade the old motors, modify the motors. In all they provide sales and service of motors, the molding and designing of the motor body i. e. fabrication of the motor, painting of the motor is also done.

2.4 Problems Faced By Small Scale Industries :

Small-scale Industries (SSI) have to function under handicaps, because of this there is commensurate development with their potentialities. The main problem, difficulties faced by SSI unit that have retired year.

i. Inefficient Human Factor:

Owing to the illiteracy, ignorance and the out of date method of the cottage workers there is inefficient human factor. SSI are handicapped by the lack of financial know how on the areas of production finance, accounting and marketing management.

ii. Lack of Credit Facilities:

The small-scale industrialists are generally poor and there are no cheap credit facilities they have to fall in the clutches of moneylender who charge heavy interest.

3.1 Observations:

The small-scale industries sector and business are left completely to private entrepreneurs. It is, therefore, in this context that an increasingly important role has been assigned to the identification and promotion of entrepreneurs for this sector.
The need for the board based entrepreneurial class in India arises from the need to speed up the process of activating the factors of production, leading to a higher rate economic growth, dispersal of economic activities, development of backward and tribal areas, creation of employment opportunities, improvement in the standard of living of the weaker sections of the society and involvement of all sections of the society in the process of growth.
Several factors go into making of an entrepreneur. Individual who initiates, establish, maintain and expand new enterprises constitute the entrepreneurial class.

The Scio-political and economic conditions, the availability of industrial technology and know-how, state art and culture of business and trading, existence of market for products and services and the indicatives and facilities available for starting an industry or business, all have a bearing on the growth of entrepreneurship. A conducive environment is created through the policies and interest of the government in economic and industrial development.

In all, small-scale industries are the beehive of entrepreneurship, innovation, and development. Both are interlinked, as well as foster integrated development. Small-scale industries and entrepreneurship are the two faces of the same coin, i.e., industrial development.

3.2 Literature Survey:

The ISO 9000 series of standard describe a basic set of elements by which quality management system can be developed and implemented. The total quality control system is called the active involvement of each and every department of an organization. The implementation of this system opens up the door for enterprises for doing business with the export market.
Recognizing the importance of ISO 9000 series, the bureau of Indian standard (BIS) has adopted this system and has brought them out as Indian standards.

The corresponding Indian standards are as under:

1. ISO 8402-is: 13999:1988 quality system vocabularies.

2. ISO 9000-is: 14000:1988 quality management and quality assurance guidelines for selection and use.

3. ISO 9001-is: 14001:1988 quality system model for quality assurance in design/development, production, installation, and servicing.

4. ISO 9002-is: 14002:1988 quality system models for assurance in production and installation.

5. ISO 9003-is: 14003:1988 quality system models for quality assurance in final inspection and test.

6. ISO 9004-is: 14004:1988 quality management and quality system elements guidelines.

3.3 Primary And Secondary Data Collection:

The choice of a proper from of organization is crucial for the success of a business enterprise. The decision of an entrepreneur depends on a number of variable factors. Among the many, the following factors are given weight age in making a choice of a suitable form or organization which is most suited to one’s enterprise. The deciding ten core factors are:
· Type of business service, trade, manufacturing.
· Selection of industry and the area of operation.
· Scope of operations, volume of business and the size of the market, including its likely growth potential.
· Amount of capital funds required initial capital, working capital.
· Possibility of raising resources from the market institutions, subsidies and other incentives.
· Costs and procedures and relative freedom from government regulation.


· Comparative tax advantages, etc.
· Size of the risk.
· Continuity of the enterprise.
· Degree of direct control and adaptability of administration.

3.4 Analysis Of The Data:

The small-scale sector has stimulated economic activity of a far reaching magnitude and has played a significant role in the following major objectives:

· Elimination of economic backwardness of rural and underdeveloped regions in the country.

· Attainment of self-reliance.

· Reduction of regional imbalance.

· Reduction of disparities in income wealth and consumption.

· Mobilization of resources of capital and skills and their optimum utilization.

· Creation of greater employment opportunities and increased output, income and standards of living.

· Meeting a substantial part of the economy’s requirements for consumer goods and simple producer goods.

· Provides employment and a steady source of income to the low-in-come groups living in rural and urban areas of the country.

· Provides substitution for various industrial products now being imported into the country.

· Improves the quality of industrial products manufactured in the cottage industry sector and to enhance both production and exports.

Present prospects:

Employment generation, dispersal of industries in rural and semi-urban areas, utilization of local resources and skills and development and widening of entrepreneurial base figure prominently in our plan priorities. Similarly, maximization of exports has assumed added importance in the context of current balance of payments position. The prospects for exports of non-traditional items such as readymade garments, leather and marine products, processed food, plastics and engineering goods etc. have improved. The growing dependence of large and medium industries on the small-scale sector for meeting their requirements of parts, components and intermediaries coupled with the policy of achieving higher level of indigenization of items hither to imported, has created a more congenial climate for the rapid growth SSI sector. Further, the government of India has recently modified the definition of small-scale and ancillary units and raised the ceilings on investments from Rs.35 lakh to Rs.60 lakh for small-scale units.

Which can go up to Rs.75 lakh in the case of export-oriented units committing to export 30% of their production from third year onwards, and from Rs.45 lakh to Rs.75 lakhs in the case of ancillary units. This revision will facilitate modernization and technology up gradation of the SSI units. In this scenario, the small-scale sector will have greater opportunities for playing a more active and diversified role.

:SugarwareZ-191: Future Prospective

Literature on SSI has been growing in recent years. Though there have been numerous articles in various journals on entrepreneurial development, especially in India. The 21st century and the new millennium has ushered in with high hopes and immense opportunities. New opportunities are opening up in the field of small-scale sector in India and the world over. To foster managerial and the organizational excellence, the study is designed for entrepreneurs who need to understand the application of special skills to lead team to excel in their work. The study will help to attain a good grasp of the fundamentals of financial management, marketing strategy and make optimal operational and strategic decisions in their industries.


4.1 Learnings And Earnings:

Small-scale industries play a key role in the industrialization of a developing country. This is because they provide immediate large-scale employment and have a comparatively higher labour-capital ratio; they need shorter gestation period and relatively smaller markets to be economic; they need a lower investments, offer a method of ensuring a more equitable distribution of national income and facilitate an effective mobilization of resources like capital and skills which might other-wise remain unutilized; and they stimulate the growth of industrial entrepreneurship and promote a more diffused pattern of ownership location.

The development of these industries would be beneficial to the developing countries and assist them in improving their economic and social well-being. This would create greater employment opportunities and assist in entrepreneurship and skills development, and ensure better use of the scarce financial resources and appropriate technology.

India is ranked among the ten most industrialized countries in the world. The country has derived its economic strength from the growth of small industries (excluding power looms and handlooms.) Throughout its length and breadth. The pivotal role the small industries play in the economy of india can be judged by looking at the statistical data; more than 55 per cent of total production in country today is from the small-scale sector.

A rewarding feature of economic development of India has shown an impressive growth in modern small-scale industries. The small enterprises have by now established their competence to manufacture wide variety of goods in different product lines requiring a high degree of skills and precision. They have made a notable contribution in releasing the principal objectives of expanded employment opportunities, adoption of modern techniques and dispersal of industries in small towns and rural areas. This has been possible as result of the successful implementation of programme for assistance of small-scale industries.

The diversified, rapid growth of small-scale industries is a significant feature of India’s economic development in recent years.

Small-scale industries have emerged as the most dynamic sector of Indian industrial economy accounting for over 55 per cent of total value of industrial production. SSI provides 40 per cent of the country’s exports and more importantly provides employment opportunities to over 175 lakh people in 31.75 lakh units. All long, it has shown the growing spirit of entrepreneurship. Small-scale industries have contributed over 100 lakh entrepreneurs. If we add, entrepreneurs from small business, the growth of entrepreneurs increases many folds. Thus small business is the seedbed for entrepreneurship. What is true of these entrepreneurs is that they continue to strive to excel in their fields. They have been learning by their failures. Failures do not dampen their spirits. Many have grown big in other words, small business is the Open University for entrepreneurs to translate their vision, innovative ideas into a reality and stand out distinctively in the society.

In process they not only produce wealth, services, but also create employment opportunities to others. Small business is thus the seed of entrepreneurial dreams. Today the entrepreneur remains the backbone of the society.
Last edited by a moderator: